April 8, 2014

Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles

By: Tom Lowe


Lesson III.D.3: Cornelius' Vision (10:1-8)                                      

Scripture (Acts 10:1-8)

1 There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian band,

2 A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway.

3 He saw in a vision evidently about the ninth hour of the day an angel of God coming in to him, and saying unto him, Cornelius.

4 And when he looked on him, he was afraid, and said, What is it, Lord? And he said unto him, Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God.

5 And now send men to Joppa, and call for one Simon, whose surname is Peter:

6 He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner, whose house is by the sea side: he shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do.

7 And when the angel which spake unto Cornelius was departed, he called two of his household servants, and a devout soldier of them that waited on him continually;

8 And when he had declared all these things unto them, he sent them to Joppa.




We now begin a new chapter in the life of the early church. The door was opened to the Gentiles and the first representative Gentile entered the church. We cannot say with any assurance that no other Gentiles had accepted Christ and been born again into the church. We do know that thousands believed on Pentecost; and when the believers in Jerusalem met with persecution they fled to various parts of the Roman Empire and witnessed concerning the blessed Savior wherever they made their home. There was the preaching of Philip the evangelist, Peter, and Paul. In all probability there were other Gentile Christians. However this is the record of the particular case that drew attention, provoked controversy, and finally brought the apostles and the church to a recognition of the larger meaning of the work of Christ.

Luke views the visit of Peter to the House of Cornelius, with such importance that he goes into the minute details and then repeats the story in Chapter 11. Indeed, it was the most significant event that we have witnessed thus far. The future course of the church depended on its acceptance of Gentiles into the fellowship.

In order to understand how important the conversion of Cornelius was to the growth of the church we must know certain facts. The Christian movement was all Hebrew. Christ Himself after the flesh was a Hebrew. All of his chosen apostles were Hebrews. His ministry was exclusively among the Hebrews. There were times when He made that very evident by what He said. For instance, a Gentile woman whose daughter was demon possessed asked Jesus for help; His response may sound a little brutal to our sensitive feelings: “It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs” (Matt. 15.26). But there were exceptions when He did minister to Gentiles, and the one already cited was such an exception; for although He said that His ministry was exercised among the Hebrew people exclusively, He nevertheless granted to the Gentile woman what she sought. All His ministry harmonized with His understanding that God’s intention in the Hebrew people was always that of reaching the people beyond that race; and so to bring blessing to them. Yet in order to understand the prejudices of the earliest members of the Christian church, we must remember that Christianity was an outgrowth of Judaism, a development of Hebraism, and the early disciples had heard Jesus speak of God as the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob. He had distinctly told them that He had not come to destroy the law, but to fulfill it. They had heard Him insist upon it, that neither jot nor tittle of that law should pass till all was fulfilled.

After Pentecost, church growth remained almost exclusively Hebrew. There may have been exceptions, as scattered disciples preached Christ here and there, and Gentiles had heard and obeyed. But the general movement had been Hebrew. The disciples in Jerusalem, though professing faith in Christ, had not ceased to observe the worship of the Hebrews. They still gather in the courts of the Temple. Peter was still observing the Hebrew habit of prayer even in Joppa. He went up at the ninth hour of the day, which was the midday hour for prayer.

There had, however, been a gradual approach to a wider understanding. The inclusion of Samaria was remarkable, seeing that they were not a people having a pure Hebrew blood-line. When Philip reached Samaria and preached, and the news came to the apostles that the Samaritans had received the Word, there was an element of surprise in their attitude; but they recognized it as a movement of God.

Moreover there had been the definite reception into the fellowship of a Gentile who was undoubtedly a proselyte, in the case of the Ethiopian Eunuch. The future apostle to the Gentiles had been apprehended, had spent those lonely months or years in Arabia, had gone back to Jerusalem, had continued the ministry of Stephen to the Hellenistic Jews, had been persecuted; and at the very time was at Tarsus of Cilicia. But so far, no gentile, entirely separated from Hebraism, had been admitted on apostolic sanction to the fellowship of the Christian Church.

The event we are going to study occurred about ten years after Pentecost. Why did the apostles wait so long before going to the lost Gentiles? After all, in his Great Commission (Matt. 28:19-20){10], Jesus had told them to go into the whole world, and it would seem logical for them to go to their Gentile neighbors as soon as possible. But God has his times as well as his plans, and the transition from the Jews to the Samaritans to the Gentiles was a gradual one.

The stoning of Stephen and the subsequent persecution of the church marked the climax of the Apostles witness to the Jews. Then the Gospel moved to the Samaritans. When God saved Saul of Tarsus, He got hold of His special envoy to the Gentiles. Now was the time to open the door of faith (Acts 14:27){11] to the Gentiles and bring them into the family of God.

No Jew imagined that Gentiles could not be saved, but—quite logically as far as God had then revealed His thoughts—all were convinced that Gentiles must become Jewish proselytes if they were to share in Messianic blessings. God’s working and revelation in this crisis made it clear to submissive hearts that the cross opened the door of salvation to all mankind on equal terms, for all must repent and believe in order to be saved. Jews were thus put on a level with the “sinners of the Gentiles” (Gal. 2:14-17){20].


1 There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian band,

2 A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway.

Before He could save the Gentiles, God had to prepare Peter to bring the message, since he had been an orthodox Jew all his life (Acts 10:14){14] and Cornelius had to be prepared to hear the message. Salvation is a divine work of Grace, but God works through human channels. Angels can deliver God’s messages to lost men, but they cannot preach the Gospel to them. That is our privilege and responsibility.

“There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius”

Remember that Paul had been in Caesarea (Acts 9:30){9] and probably some of the other apostles had been preaching the Gospel along the coast. Tel Aviv is really a part of old Joppa. As one travels up the coast from Joppa, the next place of any size is Caesarea, which was really a Roman city. It was the place where Pilate lived.

The fact that Cornelius is mentioned by name is perhaps suggestive that he was well known in the early Christian communities for whom Luke wrote. The place of his residence is of some importance, since Caesarea was from a.d. 6 the provincial capital and place of residence of the Roman governor. Unlike Lydda and Joppa, which were mainly inhabited by Jews, Caesarea was mainly a Hellenistic-style city with a dominant population of Gentiles. Originally, a small town named Strato’s Tower, it was rebuilt on a grand style by Herod the Great, complete with a man-made harbor, a theatre, an amphitheater, a hippodrome, and a temple dedicated to Caesar. The city was named Caesarea to honor Augustus Caesar. There was a substantial Jewish minority there and considerable friction existed between the Jews and the larger Gentile community. It is fitting that it should be the place where Peter came to terms with his own prejudices and realized that human barriers have no place with the God who “does not show favoritism.

A centurion of the band called the Italian band”

We know for certain that Cornelius was a Roman soldier. He may have been a patrician{1] or a plebeian{2]. There is no way to tell which class he belonged to. He was a centurion{3] serving under Herod Agrippa{4], the representative of Roman power in that district. He was stationed at Caesarea along with his cohort and served as Rome’s police force; putting down any rebellion or turmoil that may arise, and generally maintaining the peace. As a centurion, he was the equivalent of a noncommissioned officer in charge of 100 men. The “Italian band,” is documented as occupying Palestine after a.d. 69, and was made up of 600 soldiers who were freedmen from Italy, entirely outside the influence of Judaism.  A cohort represented about one-tenth of a Roman legion.

A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house,

There is nothing whatever here to suggest that this man Cornelius was a proselyte in the true sense of the word. There were full proselytes, and there were proselytes of the gate; and the distinction was a very real one. Full proselytes of Judaism were men who had submitted themselves entirely to all its rites and ordinances, were circumcised, and thus entered into all the privileges of the covenant people. Cornelius was not one of these. He may in all probability have been a proselyte of the gate, and as such they would remain a Gentile in the thinking of the Hebrew. A proselyte of the gate was considered by the Hebrew as outside the covenant, outside the place of privilege; for he had not submitted to the ceremonial rites and ordinances, even though he professed sympathy with the grand-idea of the Hebrew religion, that of the monotheistic philosophy.  The phrase “one that feared God” is commonly held to be a description of Gentiles who had accepted the truth of the Jewish religion, a proselyte of the gate, as explained above. There were many “God fearers” like Cornelius in the ancient world (Acts 13:16){21] and they proved to be a ready field for spiritual harvest.

He was a man of faith, faith in the one God, which he expressed by the life he lived before his family, his men, and all others. He was “devout” in all the full and rich sense of that word. That means his worship was rightly directed. He recognized his dependence upon that which is divine. Moreover, his godliness was such that his whole household was influenced for God. The fact that this man had a permanent residence in Caesarea and that his family lived there with him has led some to suggest that he may have been retired at this time.

One is immediately reminded of Jesus’ encounter with a centurion at Capernaum who was described as well respected by the Jewish community, much like Cornelius (see Luke 7:1-10). Centurions are generally depicted in a favorable light throughout the Gospels and Acts, and this may well be evidence of the success of the early Christian mission among the military.

Whether Cornelius is a saved man is open to question. Those who say he was refer to this verse and verse 35{22], where Peter says in obvious reference to Cornelius, that “whoever fears Him (God), and works righteousness is accepted by Him.” Those who teach Cornelius was not saved point to Acts 11:14{33], where the angel is quoted as promising him that Peter would tell him words whereby he might be saved.

Which gave much alms to the people.

His faith in God was seen in his gifts for he gave alms{5] to all the people. Cornelius was clearly a Gentile who worshipped God and supported the Jewish religious community. In fact, he was described as performing two of the three main acts of Jewish piety—prayer and almsgiving. (Only fasting is not mentioned; but in verse 30{19], he tells Peter that he was fasting when the angel came to him.). In fact, his devotion to God put him well on the way, preparing him for receiving the Gospel and for the full inclusion in God’s people that he could not have found in the synagogue.

The nation Israel has always laid great stress upon giving. God had taught them this in the Old Testament. We speak of the tithe, but it is obvious from the Mosaic system that they actually gave three-tenths. They gave for the running of the government (which was a theocracy at the beginning), they gave for the maintenance of the Temple, and they gave a tenth of all they produced. So, they have been a giving generous people.

And prayed to God always.

We know from verse 3 that Cornelius observed the Hebrew hours of prayer, for it says “He saw in a vision evidently about the ninth hour of the day.” He had adopted the Hebrew methods of religious life and observed the ninth hour, one of the Hebrew hours of prayer. Nothing in his life expressed his faith in God better than his commitment to prayer, for he prayed alway. Cornelius was not permitted to offer sacrifices in the Temple, so he offered his prayers as his sacrifices (Ps. 141:1-2){12]. In every way he was a model of religious respectability—and yet he was not a saved man.  Here then is a man who had risen above the idolatry that overshadowed the world at that time. He is a paradox and an enigma; in his earliest years, in all probability, he was influenced by Roman myth and emperor worship; himself a Roman, a centurion, officer of a Roman cohort, saturated with Roman ideas; and a man of faith in the one God, expressing his faith in the devotion of his life, in his alms giving, and in his prayers. It seems that Cornelius was a Jew in every respect except circumcision. Like many pagans, he became interested in the religion of the Jews and followed those acts of piety permitted him in his uncircumcised state. It may be that Cornelius’ position in the Roman army prevented him from professing an open commitment to Judaism by being circumcised, or it could be that he just refused to be circumcised. There were many pagans who attended Jewish synagogues and worshipped God, but they did not become proselytes simply because they feared the rite of circumcision.

Prayer is a time for opening oneself up to God, thus enabling His leading.

3 He saw in a vision evidently about the ninth hour of the day an angel of God coming in to him, and saying unto him, Cornelius.

4 And when he looked on him, he was afraid, and said, What is it, Lord? And he said unto him, Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God.

5 And now send men to Joppa, and call for one Simon, whose surname is Peter:

6 He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner, whose house is by the sea side: he shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do.

This was a very good man, but he had not passed into the fullness of life or of light. He also needed Christ, and he needed spiritual enduement{6]. That is the key to Cornelius’ situation. The most wonderful thing in this story is the wonderful character of Cornelius before he became a Christian. Just as Jesus said, “Ye must be born again” (John 3:7), not to a man who was a notorious sinner; but to Nicodemus, one of the highest products of Judaism, a man who was sincere, true, devout, and seeking truth; so also here, the very first Gentile to be admitted to the recognized fellowship of the Christian Church was a Gentile who had come as far as he could without knowing the Lord Jesus.

The Law of Moses was a wall between Jews and Gentiles, and this wall had been broken down at the cross (Eph. 2:14-18){15]. The Gentiles were considered aliens and strangers as far as the Jewish covenants and promises were concerned (Eph. 2:11-13){16]. But now, all of that would change, and God would declare that, as far as the Jew and Gentile were concerned, “There is no difference” either in condemnation (Rom. 3:22-23){17] or in salvation (Rom. 10:12-13){18].

He saw in a vision evidently about the ninth hour of the day an angel of God coming in to him.

The vision that Cornelius saw was an observable vision, a definite and actual visitation. The angel came to this man about the ninth hour while he was meditating. There were three traditional times of prayer; “the ninth hour” being the afternoon hour of 3 p.m. was the time for the evening Tamid (daily sacrifice) in the Temple in Jerusalem. Thus we assume that since he was not able to go to Jerusalem to participate in the prayers at the Tamid, he had his own private prayer at the accustomed Jewish time.  Frequently in Luke and Acts God used prayer time as the opportunity for leading to new avenues of ministry{7]. The thing of supreme importance here is not the presence of the angel, but what he said. The message brought to this man by the heavenly messenger contained elements from everything that had happened before, Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God. Here the truth of a later statement that “God is no respecter of persons,” is made manifest. The angel came to an uncircumcised Gentile who had no part in the fleshly covenant, with no privileges within Hebraism.  It was an object lesson not only for Peter, but for all people and all time. In the words of the angel there was a recognition of the past, no word of blame, no word that charged him with sin, but a recognition of the fact that he had been true to the light he had received. Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God.

Visions occur frequently in Acts as a vehicle of divine leading, which illustrates that the major advances in the Christian witness are all under divine direction. In no case is that clearer than in the present instance. Cornelius and Peter took no initiative in what transpired. Their mutual visions illustrate that all was under God’s direction.

And when he looked on him, he was afraid, and said, What is it, Lord?

Cornelius’ response to the heavenly epiphany is understandable. It was a response of awe and reverence, not of cowering fear. Much like Paul, Cornelius greeted his heavenly visitor with a respectful “Lord.” Perhaps “Lord” here means “Sir.” There is, however, another opinion which teaches that, being a Gentile, he was not as aware of the ministry of angels as a Jew would be, and so he was afraid and mistook the angel for the Lord. The angel responded by noting that God was aware of his piety. Later Cornelius called this angel, “a man in shining clothes” (Acts 10:30){19].

The difference between Cornelius and religious people today is this: He knew that his religious devotion was not sufficient to save him. Many religious people today are satisfied that their character and good works will get them to heaven, and they have no concept either of their own sin or God’s grace. In his prayers, Cornelius was asking God to show him the way to salvation (Acts 11:13-14){13].

And he said unto him, Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God.

There is no suggestion that in the mind of the Spirit, and very soon in the mind of the Christian Apostle, or in the minds of those early church thinkers, that Cornelius was all he might be. Had there been no Christ, no gospel, had he never heard the message, then he would have been judged by the light he had, and his obedience to it; but he needed the fuller light, and his obedience to the earlier light was the condition upon which the angel came to him and said: “Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God. And now send men to Joppa, and call for one Simon.” He shall tell thee what to do; the other things waiting for thee, and the larger life opening its doors before thee. The term “memorial” literally “remembrance,” is Old Testament sacrificial language. Cornelius prayers and works of charity had risen like the sweet savor of a sincerely offered sacrifice, well pleasing to God (Phil. 4:18){8]. The importance of Cornelius piety is reiterated throughout the narrative (vv. 2, 4, 22, 35). Please don’t miss this—there are certain things that do count before God. These are things which in no way can merit salvation, but they are things which God notes. The prayers of Cornelius and his alms had come up for a memorial before God, and God brought the Gospel to him. Wherever there is a man who seeks after God as Cornelius did, that man is going to hear the Gospel of the grace of God. God will see that he gets it.

The angel brought not only recognition, but instruction. And now send men to Joppa, and call for one Simon, whose surname is Peter: He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner, whose house is by the sea side: In the words of the angel we have insight into what the thinking of Cornelius may have been at this time. He shall tell thee what thou oughtest to do. That surely implies that Cornelius was anxious, was enquiring, that he had come to some place of bewilderment in his life. It might have been that he was undecided as to whether he should become a proselyte and totally commit to the Hebrew religion; for he had discovered that the God of the Hebrew was a mighty God. It may also have been that he had come under the influence of Philip, and the wonderful preaching that had made its way through Judah and Samaria. It may be that he was wondering if he could enter into fellowship with that Christ Whom Philip had preached; and if he could do it through Judaism. Many Hebrews were also wrestling with these same issues, and they were confronting the Church and wanting answers about this new religion that boasted of a living Savior. Be all that as it may, the fact remains that to Cornelius, sincere and inquiring, the angel came, recognizing his sincerity, and providing him with instruction on how he is to proceed.

I would like to know the content of Cornelius’ prayer. Could he possibly have requested his full acceptance by God, his full inclusion with God’s people? At this point the angel revealed nothing to him about his ultimate purpose for him, simply that he was to send to Joppa for a certain man named Simon Peter. But why send for Peter, who was thirty miles away in Joppa, when Philip the evangelist was already in Caesarea? (Acts 8:40){14]. Because it was Peter, not Philip who had been given the “keys.” God not only works at the right time, but He also works through the right servant: and both are essential.

In our previous study we had left Peter in the house of Simon the tanner, and that in itself is evidence of the fact that prejudice is being broken down. Prior to his coming to Christ, and his baptism of the Spirit, Peter, the Hebrew, would not have lodged in the house of Simon the tanner. The trade of tanner was held in such supreme contempt that if a girl was engaged to a tanner without knowing he followed that profession, the engagement would be cancelled. A tanner had to build his house 50 cubits outside the city. But this man’s prejudices were so far broken down that he was content to lodge in the house of Simon a tanner; most certainly, the house of a man who loved Christ, a fellow-disciple. The first signs of prejudice was gone; and yet it was still in his heart. He still thought of Hebraism as so divine that its rites must be adhered to by those coming into the Christian fellowship from the Gentile world. It was necessary that He, and those associated with him discover the fact that the old ways of Judaism had been swept away by the prophesy fulfilled by Christ; and that now, without rites, ceremony, or Hebrew ordinance, men might come into a living, growing relationship with Christ. In using Peter (and also Paul), God had used perhaps the most prejudiced and religious bigot, the greatest extremist of the day. Obviously, the Holy Spirit had directed every move in getting the Gospel to the Gentiles. My friend, all genuine Christian work is directed by the Holy Spirit. No other works amounts to anything. The Holy Spirit had to work in the heart of the gentile; the Holy Spirit had to work in the heart of the Jew. The Holy Spirit directed the bringing of the Gospel to the Gentile world.

7 And when the angel which spake unto Cornelius was departed, he called two of his household servants, and a devout soldier of them that waited on him continually;

8 And when he had declared all these things unto them, he sent them to


Still very much in the dark about what God had in store for him, Cornelius neither questioned the angel further nor hesitated in complying with his directions. He called for two of his servants and a “devout” soldier, who was probably a worshipper of God like himself. The Greek text adds that all three “continually waited on him,” which is a classical expression for “orderlies,” for those who are most tried and true. Cornelius was thus careful to choose his most trustworthy attendants to go to Joppa and seek Peter. “He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner, whose house is by the sea side” was all the address the three men needed. The odor of those hides down in that vat will lead them to the right place.

And when he had declared all these things unto them indicates that he explained to them everything concerning the vision and the angel, and the instructions given by the angel.

scripture reference and special notes:

{1] Patrician: a member of one of the original citizen families of ancient Rome: a person of high birth: aristocrat.

{2] Plebeian: one of the common people; but a Roman citizen.

{3] Centurion: a Roman officer commanding 100 men.

{4] Herod Agrippa: a Judean monarch during the 1st century AD. The grandson of Herod the Great and son of Herod Agrippa II. Christian and Jewish history take different views of this king, with the Christians largely opposing Agrippa and the Jews largely favoring Agrippa.

{5] Alms: something (like money or food) given freely to relieve the poor; charity.

{6] Enduement: an infusing or endowing with the Spirit of God.

{7] Luke 3:21; 6:12-16; 9:18-22, 28-31; 22:39-46; Acts 1:14; 13:1-3.

{8] But I have all, and abound: I am full, having received of Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you, an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, wellpleasing to God.

{9] (Acts 9:30) Which when the brethren knew, they brought him down to Caesarea, and sent him forth to Tarsus.

{10] (Matt. 28:19-20) Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 20Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

{11] (Acts 14:27) And when they were come, and had gathered the church together, they rehearsed all that God had done with them, and how he had opened the door of faith unto the Gentiles.

{12] (Ps. 141:1-2) LORD, I cry unto thee: make haste unto me; give ear unto my voice, when I cry unto thee. 2 Let my prayer be set forth before thee as incense; and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice.

{13] (Acts 11:13-14) And he shewed us how he had seen an angel in his house, which stood and said unto him, Send men to Joppa, and call for Simon, whose surname is Peter; 14Who shall tell thee words, whereby thou and all thy house shall be saved .

{14] (Acts 10:14) But Peter said, Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten any thing that is common or unclean.

{15] (Eph. 2:14-18)For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; 15 Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace; 16And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby: 17And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh. 18For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.

{16](Eph. 2:11-13) Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands; 12That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world: 13But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ.

{17] (Rom. 3:22-23) Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference: 23For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;

{18](Rom. 10:12-13) For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. 13For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.

{19] (Acts 10:30) And Cornelius said, Four days ago I was fasting until this hour; and at the ninth hour I prayed in my house, and, behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing,

{20] (Gal. 2:14-17) But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews ? 15We who are Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, 16Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified. 17But if, while we seek to be justified by Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners, is therefore Christ the minister of sin? God forbid.

{21] (Acts 13:16) Then Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, Men of Israel, and ye that fear God, give audience.

{22] (Acts 10:35) But in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.